INTEGRATE fosters cooperation for industrial transition towards Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) in the Atlantic Area

Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture: a feasible option for the future of aquaculture

Together the consortium of the “Integrate Aquaculture: an eco-innovative solution for sustainability in the Atlantic Region”, project, led by CTAQUA, conclude with the publication of a document (https://bit.ly/2EGGSp6) summarising the work carried out during its implementation across the five European Atlantic Area countries.

INTEGRATE Project Layman’s Report

In this document, INTEGRATE presents the definition of a framework for the appropriate development of Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture, as well as the need for a global definition of IMTA, the pilot actions carried out in the different Atlantic Area countries, the environmental impact of this type of aquaculture, the communication actions, and finalises with the main results and conclusions of the project.

“Among the main conclusions of INTEGRATE, the consensus reached of a definition of IMTA for all systems, whether continental, marine, open sea, on land, or recirculation, stands out. This will allow progress towards the legal recognition of the activity, which is relevant for the industry and the political decision makers of the Atlantic Area”, explains María del Mar Agraso, technical director of CTAQUA. In this sense, INTEGRATE concludes that Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) is the enhanced production of aquatic organisms (with or without terrestrial organisms) of two or more functional groups, that are trophically connected by demonstrated nutrient flows and whose biomass is fully or partially removed by harvesting to facilitate ecological balance.

This work has been reflected in technical manuals and implementation guides applicable to aquaculture production in each of the Atlantic Area countries, as well as in political guidelines at national level to consolidate development at European level and support the transition of current aquaculture production towards IMTA.

Furthermore, in order to validate the technology and production processes specific to Atlantic Area IMTA, eight case studies have been carried out within the framework of INTEGRATE, divided into three pilot actions implemented in Spain, France, Portugal and Ireland. “With these actions we have demonstrated that IMTA is a feasible option for the future of aquaculture in the Atlantic Area, using species with high productive potential and commercial value”, says Martha Dunbar, responsible for INTEGRATE at CTAQUA.

In the first pilot action, work has been carried out to optimise the economic value of seaweed in IMTA systems by improving the culture techniques of 4 species, of which Himanthalia elongata is new to aquaculture. In the second action, the “problem” faced by oyster producers was capitalised on by filling their culture pouches with Porphyra algae. The management of Porphyra resources in an integrated oyster culture system was analysed and wild harvesting and production in a hatchery was studied, in order to provide oyster farmers with a culture technique that offers new economic perspectives, new inputs for the seaweed industry and new breeding techniques.

The third action was aimed at enhancing the value of salt mines in southern Spain and Portugal by taking advantage of their nutrient-rich waters. The work carried out in this pilot action with sea bream (Sparus aurata), oysters (Magallana gigas) and seaweed (Ulva spp. and Gracilaria spp.) allowed further development of a standard land-based IMTA model, in order to bring it to an industrial scale. Land-based production systems are ideal candidates for IMTA development due to the possibility of managing water distribution and use.

At the same time, “we have studied the environmental impact of this type of system through life cycle assessments,” says Martha Dunbar. “It has been shown that IMTA cultivation in semi-extensive production systems, usually carried out in the southern Atlantic regions of Europe (southern Spain and Portugal), has a lower overall environmental impact compared to semi-intensive IMTA and semi-intensive fish monoculture; it is economically profitable especially in large protected areas,” she adds.

All the issues studied in the project demonstrate that IMTA is a feasible option for the future of Atlantic Area aquaculture, and that there is growing interest of the aquaculture industry in product diversification, and environmental awareness among consumers and regulatory bodies.

The collaboration of all those involved in the aquaculture sector of the Atlantic Area has been a determining factor in the successful completion of this project, and has made it possible to obtain a production model that reflects the commitment of the sector to planning aquaculture in a sustainable manner. “INTEGRATE has further strengthened the international IMTA community, through the development of an online community and the organization of events that are planned to be maintained to harmonize approaches and ensure the future implementation of this productive activity at European scale, betting on sustainability”, concludes María del Mar Agraso.

The INTEGRATE consortium considers that it would be necessary to work, in the near future, on the evaluation of the application of these models in different locations, with different combinations of species; extending the systems evaluated and quantifying the productive, economic and environmental value. It is also necessary to develop a technical standard applicable to the European Atlantic Area and to develop a global regulatory framework.

Final results webinar Session 3: where is IMTA in the Atlantic Area heading?

The final session was devoted to the future perspectives of IMTA in the Atlantic Area, the importance of knowledge transfer, and the definition of a work framework for the development of IMTA.

Lars Brunner from SAMS started by presenting the importance of capitalisation for knowledge transfer in the INTEGRATE project. The aim of the capitalisation activities in this context is to transfer the IMTA experience and best practice into a series of events and learning materials that will take the project knowledge and disseminate it to interested stakeholders, such as students, industry partners and academia. These activities include the development of an IMTA community, in this case a LinkedIn group, training activities / teaching material for students, i.e. future professionals, which are all freely available on the project website, a series of thematic workshops on eco-efficient practices in aquaculture, as well as technical field visits (“living labs”), and the development of a supportive regulatory framework for IMTA, in the form of policy briefings for each of the Atlantic Area countries.

Following the capitalisation of the project, Marie Lesueur from Agrocampus Ouest in France presented their work on defining a framework for IMTA development: Action Plans for the Atlantic Area. One phase of the INTEGRATE project was to define a framework for IMTA development by proposing an action plan for the Atlantic Area. The objective was to study the IMTA sector in order to obtain an overview and propose recommendations in order to create a favourable context for its development. Firstly, they identified the existing IMTA sites in each country of the Atlantic Area and conducted a survey using interviews with producers, administration, technical and research institutes, and other stakeholder, also through workshops and roundtables. All the collected data were also complemented by an extensive literature review. Through this analysis, the main barriers and levers for the development of the sector were highlighted. Based on these results, a SWOT analysis was carried out at national level for each of the following aspects of IMTA: technical, social, environmental, economic and regulatory. This diagnosis was then used to draw up recommendations, which were discussed with multiple stakeholders in the aquaculture sector. The recommendations are based on the problems faced by the industry, including the difficulty to obtain production sites. One reason for this is the complex and time-consuming licensing process. Another reason is the difficulty to access space on land and at sea due to competition with other activities. Some recommendations here would be to improve licensing procedures, synthesis marine planning documents and standardise environmental surveys to homogenise licensing. An additional difficulty faced by producers is the lack of social acceptability. In fact, some projects have been restricted or even stopped following legal environmental issues. In this regard it could help to set up participatory tools to integrate IMTA projects in local area development plans, communicate the benefits of the ecosystem services provided by IMTA, and to communicate about IMTA principles and aquaculture practices, one the one hand to the industry including producers, funding organisations and decision-makers, and on the other hand, the public and consumers. Another difficulty faced is the lack of knowledge about how IMTA systems work, which makes it impossible to propose robust and economically viable models. In this regards, the recommendations are to intensity research on the interactions with the systems and with the environment, improve collaboration between scientists and the industry, and increase awareness and develop training courses to enhance innovation and develop new IMTA systems. And finally, stakeholders expressed difficulties in terms of valuation and visibility, since current systems are barely reaching commercial scale and there is no real evidence of economic sustainability. Here the main recommendations are to find solutions for the industry to diversify and ways to convert current aquaculture systems, find new species that meet the existing economic and environmental challenges, and give visibility to IMTA products in order to enable market differentiation.

As a final wrap up of the webinar, Martha Dunbar from CTAQUA gave a brief overview of conclusions and next steps. The main conclusions were that IMTA is a feasible option for the future of Atlantic Area aquaculture, there is growing interest from the industry to diversify their production for various reasons, including reducing risks through diversification, increased environmental benefits as well as non-productive activities, such as tourism. In addition, there is a growing market for sustainable products among European consumers, as well as national and European legislation. Furthermore, with the consensus of an IMTA definition as well as the technical manuals and implementation guidelines, we can help in harmonising approaches and implementation techniques for the purpose of comparison and reproducibility across countries in order to guarantee successful upscaling. A continued European and international collaboration is essential in order to further harmonise these approaches and profit from experiences gathered.

Final results webinar Session 2: understanding IMTA best-practice in the Atlantic Area

The results of the pilot actions developed by INTEGRATE were also released. The project had eight case studies distributed in three pilot actions in Spain, Portugal, France, and Ireland to develop specific technology and production processes for Atlantic IMTA. The results of this work are useful not only at a production level, but also at a legislative and environmental level.

Starting off the Pilot Actionpresentations, Anna Soler from the Irish Seaweed Consultancy, spoke about “Cultivation of Himanthalia elongata (Sea Spaghetti): First trials on an IMTA farm in Ireland”. The aim of this pilot action was to test new eco-friendly technologies and high-value seaweeds applied to IMTA. This species was selected since it was one of the first 10 seaweed species authorised by France in 1990, as the first country in Europe to do so. Only minimal previous work has been done on cultivation of this species on a large-scale, and new in this sense also for ISC before starting these pilot action activities.  Starting with a description (with photos) of the interesting growth stages of the Himanthalia elongata, starting with button-like growth and finalising in the long spaghetti-like strands, that lend this species its common name, Anna presented their process of selecting the ideal substrate for cultivation and finally, their experience of cultivating the species at sea to test the methodology they were developing. They brought the selected substrate (scallop shells) to Lehenagh IMTA farm in Connemara, Co. Galway, managed by the Marine Institute and a great location to test these methodologies. Although throughout the growth stages epiphytes were always present, they did not seem to overgrow the Himanthalia elongata, but they do clearly compete for space. After a list of conclusions and observations, ISC is happy to conclude that it is a very pleasant species to work with and that they have a successful proof of concept for IMTA with this species and will continue with their studies and testing in order to render cultivation of this species to become commercially available.

Jessica Ratcliff from NUIG continued with a presentation of pilot action 1 activities describing their trials of lumpsuckers and Ulva spp. in a pilot-scale recirculating IMTA system. The lumpsuckers are particularly pleasant to work with and, as is the case also for Ulva spp., they have an economic value and are locally available. NUIG has lumpsuckers in their local hatchery, due to their interest in using them as a biological control of sea lice on farmed salmon. In the case of Ulva spp., it is not only of economic value but also has a high potential growth rate and, therefore, good remediation potential, also very important in this case and in IMTA in general. The initial questions on which the study was based were: What are the nutrient dynamics of the system? Does the Ulva effectively use the nutrients provided by the fish and does this impact growth rate and seaweed composition in terms of carbon and nitrogen? Do the two morphologies behave the same and is there an interaction between them when they are co-cultivated? And how is the alga growth and productivity affected by altering certain environmental parameters in the system? After describing the methodologies in more detail, the main conclusions are that, first of all and in general, the systems worked. It seems that the laminar Ulva was more suitable than the tubular and reasons for poor Ulva growth rates require further testing, but may be that it is not the best species, the photoperiod may be too short or the temperature and nutrient concentrations too low or the biofilter too big.

The final pilot action 1 presentation was given by project partner Rémy Luthringer from Agrocampus Ouest in Brittany France, where they tested the cultivation of oysters, sea cucumbers and seaweed in a land-based IMTA system in Beg Meil in southern Brittany. The main objective of this activity was to monitor and assess the performance of a land-based IMTA system. As species for their pilot action they chose oysters as the excretive component, expected to enrich the water with nutrients, and sea cucumber and seaweed (Palmaria palmata or Ulva spp.) as the extractive species, primary producers. They performed 2 experiments with the seaweeds, one with each of the aforementioned species. Both can be found locally, which is an important factor in the pilot actions. They also all have an economic value. The main difference between the 2 different experiments was the water flow, the first being a flow-through system, using Palmaria palmata and the second a recirculating system, using Ulva spp. In order to feed the oysters, they used phytoplankton, using the same concentration and the same number of oysters. Full details of the results are described in the presentation video. The main conclusions of this pilot action are that the non-domesticated animals like the sea cucumber H. forskali, is a good candidate as a benthic species for IMTA in Europe (good economic value potential; feeding on detritus). It is very important when setting up an IMTA experiment to consider seasonality, bioremediation capacity and economic value when choosing the species, for example, Palmaria palmata is more suitable during the winter and Ulva spp. more suitable for the summer months.in the future it would be interesting to dig deeper into the study of different animal densities, also for the seaweed. Furthermore, an important next step would be to scale up the system to obtain a more precise idea of the economic value of such a system.

Following the INTEGRATE project presentations, a talk was given by Damien Toner from BIM, Ireland’s Seafood Development Agency and an associated partner of the INTEGRATE project. His external testimonial about the AQUAMONA freshwater project was entitled: “A perch, trout and duckweed outdoor recirculating IMTA system in Ireland”. The project is based on cutaway peatland in Ireland. The area was traditionally used for peat harvesting for heating homes and electricity generation, but are now being converted into environmentally sustainable projects. Their greatest challenge at the moment is to maintain the system balance between algae, duckweed, bacteria and cyanobacteria.

Starting off the Pilot Action 2 presentations, Bertrand Jacquemin from CEVA in Brittany spoke about their case study about combining oysters and nori in an IMTA system, how oyster farmers could domesticate a high value seaweed, naturally recruiting on oyster pockets. They used Porphyra purporea (aka nori) naturally recruiting in different farms (7 farms identified) to obtain a strain collection. They then artificially seeded oyster pockets that were subsequently transferred to oyster farms. They then tested different harvesting techniques that can be easily reproduced in the context of the farm. This case study allowed them to explore the production process from the early stages to the harvest and different scenarios were discussed on a case by case basis for each oyster farm.

As previously, we also had an external testimonial presentation here to conclude the pilot action 2 context. In her presentation, Cynthia Carpentier from CREAA talked about the potentiality of macroalgae culture in Nouvelle-Aquitaine – a Study applied to Porphyra sp. In their study they monitored the three following environments: foreshore, marsh and deep water – longline. After their study the can conclude that the foreshore environment is the most suitable for cultivation of Porphyra sp. and they are now further defining the best culture course on the foreshore, which can secure a potential new seaweed production in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region.

 

In order to introduce the particular environment in which the pilot action 3 studies were located, we started off the presentations with our external testimonial by Macarena Algarín, co-founder of the company Estero Natural S.L. in Andalusia, Spain, mainly dedicated to oyster cultivation and eco-tourism, on “IMTA in the southern European Atlantic area: Advantages of its implementation”, according to Estero Natural’s point of view. Most of the aquaculture facilities in their area are land-based, due to the local sea conditions, divided into esteros and others. She continued by explaining what esteros are, namely former salt production areas that were transformed into marine fish cultivation areas after the 1970s salt industry crisis, presenting “opportunities during times of crisis”. Esteros use marine water, which flows into the ponds through sluice gates, then flowing from pond to pond by gravity. This process is completely influenced by the local tides, producing water in- and outflow, which is crucial for implementing IMTA. In the spring when water flows in, it also brings fish, which then grow in a natural way, without the use of pumps or external feeding. Esteros host a lot of biodiversity, fish species, bird species, some of which are threatened. It is most likely that in order to stop the deterioration of the local environment sustainable productive activity is essential. But what is the current productive situation in esteros? Many companies have realised that extensive fish farming is not profitable and many companies are not allowed to implement a different type of aquaculture, since they are located within protected areas. Estero Natural is convinced that they need a diversification strategy for their company, which is where IMTA can play an important role.

Starting off the INTEGRATE Pilot Action 3 presentations, Gabriela Oliveira from IPMA, Portugal, spoke about the southern Portuguese case study in the combined pilot action with southern Spain, entitled: “Towards a standard model for land-based IMTA mariculture – Two cases from southern Spain and southern Portugal: semi-extensive and semi-intensive production”. As Macarena explained in the previous presentation, most of the aquaculture in these areas is located in earthen ponds (esteros) within protected areas, so IMTA can be an appropriate sustainable approach, simulating natural systems. The advantage is that it is a land-based system where species compartment flows can be controlled. In order to develop a started model for land-based IMTA, a semi-extensive and semi-intensive case studies were implemented in earthen pond systems in southern Atlantic area of Portugal and Spain. At IPMA they used the following species: meagre, white seabream, flathead mullet, oysters and sea lettuce. They can conclude that the high-density system showed higher final results, and higher trophic level species had higher production in the high-density system and lower trophic level species in the low-density system. The densities in this IMTA system presented problems, i.e. parasite outbreaks.

Erik Malta from CTAQUA subsequently presented the southern Spanish part of pilot action 3, giving an overview of the IMTA pilot implementation in a functioning aquaculture company in the Salina de Belén, Puerto Real, Spain, hosted by the company Estero Natural, as previously presented by Macarena Algarín. In the CTAQUA case, they had to make slight modifications to the design in order to guarantee continuous water flow through the compartments and also a constant minimum water depth, which is very important for the seaweed. This modification basically consisted in managing the sluices so that at high tide and spring tide they could store a lot of water in the storage basins. The experiment itself consisted of 2 compartments, one with fish and oysters and the other, downstream, with seaweeds. The fish were fed with a standard commercial feed. CTAQUA concludes that these esteros, i.e. former salt evaporation ponds, show potential for IMTA, because they have different compartments, they’re relatively easy to manage, there’s a good water flow, which is assisted by the tides and therefore energy saving. At least for the oysters there is a very high production capacity, whereas the seaweed systems need to be improved and are being tested in a different project. Preliminary results of the marker-analyses and nutrient concentrations indicate trophic connection between the compartments. The standard model guideline can be found on the INTEGRATE project website.

Following the pilot action presentations, Emília Cunha from IPMA, Portugal, presented IMTA’s environmental contribution, i.e. the development of the conceptual model and the results of the life cycle assessments (LCAs) of semi-intensive and semi-extensive pilot actions. Since there were various pilot actions being tested within the INTEGRATE project, they started be developing a conceptual model to incorporate the pilot actions. The conceptual compartment model was basically a model of saltwater pond IMTA and the environmental performance of the system being carried out was evaluated through an LCA. The could conclude that the assessment carried out is an estimate representing the range of potential impacts of semi-extensive and semi-intensive pond IMTA; feed is the largest single contributor to all environmental impacts associated with pond IMTA production; the metrics “feed:gain” and “water renovation:energy consumption” explains most variation regarding the environmental impacts of pond IMTA; downstream macroalgae production decreased eutrophication impact. They suggest the following improvements in the environmental impact: on farm improvements in “feed:gain” for all impacts, water renovation – energy use, global warming, acidification as the base impacts, improvement of feed composition and management, improvement of energy consumption, and increase in downstream production of macroalgae.

Final results webinar Session 1: the INTEGRATE project

In this session (full video available here) an introduction and overview of the project was presented by project coordinator Martha Bonnet Dunbar (CTAQUA), giving a brief overview of why the INTEGRATE project was developed and how. The reasons behind conceiving the INTEGRATE project were the following:

  1. Need for environmentally sustainable approaches to diversification of the aquaculture sector, as a growing industry in the bioeconomy
  2. Need to overcome remaining hurdles: IMTA in the AA is limited by socio-economic, administrative and regulatory challenges, although its implementation is encouraged by major policies, such as the EU Blue Growth Strategy, the Atlantic Action Plan, and Regional Innovation Strategies
  3. Need for industry relevant definition of IMTA in the European AA: previous EU FP7 project IDREEM more clearly defined barriers faced by IMTA, and how these can be overcome, including appropriate standards and certification that can be adopted by the industry and understood by policy-makers and consumers.

The partnership identified 4 main objectives for the implementation of the project, with the final goal of successfully implementing IMTA in the European Atlantic Area:

  1. To strengthen collaborative networking around eco-efficient aquaculture techniques
  2. To communicate the principles and benefits of IMTA and raise awareness of IMTA’s holistic approach
  3. To achieve market consolidation of EU sustainable seafood
  4. And to fulfil Atlantic Area & European Union regional goals as the industry transitions to resource-efficient technologies: so the promotion of green and blue growth in aquaculture

In terms of implementation, the project was divided into 6 work packages, work packages 4 to 6 focussing on the more scientific activities, like the pilot actions and environmental modelling, and accompanied by the first 3 supportive and transversal work packages with the aim of capitalising the knowledge generated and successfully communicating the results to the industry, academia, public administration and society at large. Taken together, the implemented activities helped the partnership develop and understand different models of IMTA implementation, their challenges and limitations and solutions to overcome these. As well as the socio-economic, regulatory and administrative hurdles in each partner country, focusing on the commonalities rather than the differences.
Starting off the more scientific part of the webinar, Bertrand Jacquemin (CEVA) and Jessica Ratcliff (NUIG) discussed what IMTA means and how it is perceived in the Atlantic Are and beyond. The first step was to develop s State-of-the-Art review of the common practices of IMTA in the Atlantic Area, work that is currently under peer-review for publication. The starting assumption of the literature review was that all cultivated aquatic organisms can be used within IMTA systems and that there was no expectation and/or a priori about the content of the articles. A two level analysis was applied to the resulting database, i.e. a quantitative followed by a qualitative analysis. The first result found was that there has been a rising interest in IMTA in the AA countries since 1996. A dominance of marine IMTA was observed in the AA countries, most likely due to a higher number and diversity of cultivated species for larger markets for products from the sea. There was also a dominance of technical studies above environmental, social and economic studies, which is explained by the simple fact that before evaluating why to implement IMTA we must know how to implement it. In conclusion the review highlights a common strategy within the Atlantic Area, and since AA countries show a common interest with complementary skills an efficient international collaboration is possible but a consensus is needed about what is behind the acronym of IMTA.

The INTEGRATE approach to defining IMTA

Starting from this basic need for a consensus of a definition for IMTA, the Integrate project developed its own approach toward this goal. Three main parts comprised this approach, i.e. a series of roundtables in each AA partner country, a questionnaire or IMTA experts and a definition event that took place in May 2019 in Porto, Portugal. The series of roundtables organised in each country were focussed on one aspect of IMTA each, i.e. technical, environmental, economic and social/regulatory. These 21 roundtables gathered a total of 350 participants across the countries to discuss bottlenecks to IMTA development and solutions to overcome these. The analyses of the outcomes of these roundtables has allowed commonalities and divergences among the AA countries to emerge. One main commonality was the frequently articulate desire or perceived need for a European definition of IMTA. Thus result led to an increase of the scope of the project to include further investigation of what this definition might be. As a starting point a questionnaire was designed to be sent to experts working within IMTA or knowledgeable of IMTA in order to understand in clear terms how IMTA is conceived. As with the roundtables this questionnaire included technical, social, regulatory, environmental and economic areas of IMTA.  An interesting result was that there was already actually quite a bit of consensus among the respondents. Through analysis, it became clear where consensus was totally lacking and areas where consensus existed but discussion was needed in order to tease out detail and specifics. Based on these results, questions were formulated and discussed at an IMTA definition event in May 2019. With 40 international experts in discussion sessions, followed by a synopsis of the discussions resulting in a draft definition for feedback from the experts and finally a consensus on a European definition of IMTA: “Enhanced production of aquatic organisms (with or without terrestrial component) of two or more functional groups, that are trophically connected by demonstrated nutrient flows and whose biomass is fully or partially removed by harvesting.”

INTEGRATE project final results webinar

In its final implementation phase, the INTEGRATE project “Integrated Aquaculture, an eco-innovative solution for sustainability in the Atlantic Area”, hosted a virtual event on June 18th in order to present its final results, the main aim of which was to share all the knowledge generated throughout the project with all interested stakeholders (industry, media, potential beneficiaries). To this end, the programme (available here) involved the eight organisations from the five countries forming the consortium. Together with CTAQUA (Spain), the project leader, the INTEGRATE partners are the research institute Agrocampus Ouest (France), the Scottish Association for Marine Science (United Kingdom), the Portuguese Institute of the Sea and the Atmosphere (Portugal), the National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland), the Irish Seaweed Consultancy (Ireland), ALGAplus (Portugal), and the Algae Innovation and Technology Centre (France).

Throughout the project duration the INTEGRATE work plan has addressed the capitalisation of existing and new IMTA knowledge, the definition of IMTA best practices, the environmental efficiency of IMTA systems and the definition of a medium-long term strategy for the implementation of IMTA in the European Atlantic Area. The dissemination of the project results and the dissemination among the end-users and the general public are key to the success of the project, and the main reason for organizing this webinar, hosted by Martha Bonnet Dunbar, project coordinator (CTAQUA), together with Erik-Jan Malta (CTAQUA).
In the webinar, divided into sessions, the activities developed within the framework of the project were discussed, as well as the definition of IMTA and its perception both in the Atlantic Area and worldwide. The results of the pilot actions developed by INTEGRATE were also released. The project had eight case studies distributed in three pilot actions in Spain, Portugal, France, and Ireland to develop specific technology and production processes for Atlantic IMTA. The results of this work are useful not only at a production level, but also at a legislative and environmental level. The final session of the event was devoted to the future perspectives of IMTA in the Atlantic Area, the importance of knowledge transfer, and the definition of a framework for the development of IMTA.

WP2 Communication: Layman’s Report and portfolio of outreach activities available

Action 2.5: INTEGRATE Project Layman’s Report
Action 2.6 portfolio: Outreach Activities